Report : “Friend or Foe?” Civil Society and the State in SADC.

“Friend or Foe?” Civil Society and the State in SADC.

The Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem) index provides a very useful basis for looking at the democratic status of any given country, as well as for comparisons of countries. Previously, we used V-Dem to examine elections, civic space, and political violence in 15 SADC countries. This analysis showed wide variation, and overall conformed to the overall V-Dem classification of these into Liberal Democracies (only the Seychelles), Electoral Democracies (Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Namibia, South Africa, and Zambia), Electoral Autocracies (Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zimbabwe), and one Closed Autocracy, eSwatini.

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